Throughout history, much of the world has witnessed ever-greater demands for reliable, high-quality and inexpensive water supplies for domestic consumption, agriculture, and industry. In recent decades there have also been increasing demands for hydrological regimes that support healthy and diverse ecosystems, provide for water-based recreational activities, reduce if not prevent floods and droughts, and in some cases, provide for the production of hydropower and ensure water levels adequate for ship navigation. Water managers are challenged to meet these multiple and often conflicting demands. At the same time, public stakeholder interest groups have shown an increasing desire to take part in the water resources development and management decision-making process. Added to all these management challenges are the uncertainties of natural water supplies and demands due to changes in our climate, changes in people’s standards of living, changes in watershed land uses and changes in technology. How can managers develop, or redevelop and restore, and then manage water resources systems – systems ranging from small watersheds to those encompassing large river basins and coastal zones – in a way that meets society’s changing objectives and goals? In other words, how can water resources systems become more integrated and sustainable?