(Commercial/Industrial) Water and Power Rates Request, 2016-2020
Keywords:funding, infrastructure, water supply
Snow Survey Procedure Manual$0.00 Add to Downloads
Snow Survey Procedure ManualCalifornia Department of Water Resources (DWR) | October 1, 2014...Summary
By any measure, California’s agriculture, hydroelectric production, domestic use, riparian health, and recreation all put tremendous demands on the state’s often limited water...
By any measure, California’s agriculture, hydroelectric production, domestic use, riparian health, and recreation all put tremendous demands on the state’s often limited water resource. Because of California’s Mediterranean climate, little significant precipitation occurs during the summer and autumn months. Accurate assessments of mid-winter precipitation, therefore, are a vital determinant of the state’s available water. During most years, maximum snow water equivalent1 (SWE) in the Sierra Nevada denotes the annual peak of surface water resource. Snow water equivalent is a key index not only for forecasting stream and river flow timing and amount, but for a wide variety of water management decisions targeted days and months into the future.
The goal of the snow survey is to obtain an accurate measure of SWE at predetermined locations: snow courses. Snow courses typically have between five and ten measurement points spread out over one or more straight-line transects. Transects can be short, or several hundred meters in length. Some snow courses are coincident with recording or data-transmitting weather instrumentation; many others stand alone in very wild and remote locations. Most snow courses are measured once per month throughout the winter (accumulation) and spring (ablation) seasons, though some may be measured at different frequencies. Several California snow course records go back to the 1920s (some to 1910). Data from the measurements are used to develop—and continuously refine—indices of stream flow for the respective watersheds. A critical first step in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of California’s SWE is by measuring its 261 snow courses throughout the state.
The aim of this document is to address snow survey procedure and equipment, review data collection, and discuss surveyor safety. While some subjects (avalanche safety, wilderness first aid) are, in their entirety, beyond the scope of this work, industry standards and procedures are presented. The author hopes this document will find utility as an office-based training manual for those new to snow surveys, as well as a field guide and reference to all who conduct snow surveys.
As of this writing, many advances in the remote sensing (by ground-, aircraft- and spacecraft-based instrumentation) of snow cover are being developed. No doubt these developments in both procedure and instrumentation will continue to advance. However, there currently exists no practical, automated technique with which to measure SWE at the number of locations and at the point-accuracy of ground-based, manual measurements. Manual measurements remain the standard for calibrating and “ground-truthing” automated instrumentation, and have the advantage that they can be obtained independent of most surface and weather conditions. For the foreseeable future, snow surveys will continue to be a vital part of the water management structure in California.
Safe Clean Water Water for Los Angeles County ResidentsAdd to Downloads
Safe Clean Water Water for Los Angeles County ResidentsLos Angeles County Department of Public Works | November 7, 2017...Summary
We live in a water-scarce area, and forces outside of our control can threaten our local water resources, including lakes, rivers and beaches. LA...
We live in a water-scarce area, and forces outside of our control can threaten our local water resources, including lakes, rivers and beaches. LA County residents rely heavily on imported water from the Sierra Mountains, the Central Valley and even from states as far away as Colorado. Climate change is causing more and more extreme weather conditions, making these remote sources more unreliable . The impacts of the recent five-year drought were widely felt here.
Rainfall is an essential, local source of LA’s water . Rain runs through local rivers, creeks and streams and can be absorbed underground, replenishing groundwater, which is a local source of drinking water. However, because so much of our region is paved over, when we do experience heavy rain, too much of that precious water is lost to the ocean before we can capture it for use.
Our local water resources are also threatened by toxins and pollution as stormwater runs through streets and over-paved areas into our rivers, creeks and streams. Pollution flows onto our beaches and into the ocean, posing a public health risk and harming marine life.
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Atlas$0.00 Add to Downloads
Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta AtlasDepartment of Water Resources | July 1, 1995...Summary
The Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers is California's water supply crossroads. It is the major collection point for water that...
The Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers is California's water supply crossroads. It is the major collection point for water that serves over 20 million people, two-thirds of our State's population.
The maze of islands and channels lying at the confluence of these two large rivers has long been the focal point of debate surrounding a number of complicated water-related issues of statewide importance. People with a wide variety of interests - agricultural, urban, industrial, environmental,
and recreational-have a vital stake in the Delta and a need to understand the physical Delta and its complex interrelationships.
This atlas provides information that we hope will be helpful in addressing the complex problems of the estuary. The atlas is a revision of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Atlas that was published in 1987. It contains updates on many Delta facts and features. It also introduces new information on the Suisun Marsh and tides and hydrology in the Delta as well as in San Francisco Bay.
Local Water Governance in the Delta$0.00 Add to Downloads
Local Water Governance in the DeltaCalifornia State Water Resources Control Board | April 8, 2014...Summary
As the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta (Delta) evolved from an historic tidally-influenced marshland to a diverse agricultural region, local water governance structures also...
As the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta (Delta) evolved from an historic tidally-influenced marshland to a diverse agricultural region, local water governance structures also evolved to meet the water needs of the area. The purpose of this report is to outline the development of these local water governance structures.