Executive Order N-10-19
Keywords:agriculture, California Water Plan, climate change, ecosystem management, human right to water, planning and management, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA)
Safeguarding California: Reducing Climate Risk An update to the 2009 California Climate Adaptation Strategy$0.00 Bulk Download
Safeguarding California: Reducing Climate Risk An update to the 2009 California Climate Adaptation StrategyCalifornia Natural Resources Agency | July 31, 2014...Summary
California and the world’s climate are changing, posing an escalated threat to health, well-being, nature, and property. Extreme weather, rising sea levels, shifting...
California and the world’s climate are changing, posing an escalated threat to health, well-being, nature, and property. Extreme weather, rising sea levels, shifting snowpack, among other impacts will touch every part of peoples’ lives in the next century. Planning key actions now will help us lessen impacts and cope with changes. Many aspects of the environment face historic displacement. In government at every level, we must work together to safeguard our state. And ultimately, each and every one of us needs to take steps to reduce our own impacts and increase our resilience in the future.
The Safeguarding California Plan provides policy guidance for state decision makers, and is part of continuing efforts to reduce impacts and prepare for climate risks. This plan, which updates the 2009 California Climate Adaptation Strategy, highlights climate risks in nine sectors in California, discusses progress to date, and makes realistic sector-specific recommendations.
California is a leader in the global effort to fight climate change. The state is pursuing a broad, integrated strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build the foundation for a new clean energy economy. While these efforts will reduce the magnitude and impact of climate change, they will not prevent it from occurring. Given the potential impacts and the long-term nature of effective planning, it is only prudent to begin preparing for these impacts. Actions needed to meet these challenges will not be cheap, but will cost far less than taking no action.
Every step that we take today helps save valuable resources in the future. To that end, the plan details 11 current efforts already underway. Right now, more extreme fires, storms, and heat waves are costing lives and property damage. State of the art modeling shows that a single extreme winter storm in California could cost on the order of $725 billion – with total direct property losses of nearly $400 billion and devastating impacts to California’s people, economy and natural resources. The health and fiscal consequences are dire. Climate change poses a threat not just to lives and health, but the financial resources of governments and the insurance industry.
More broadly – and likely more costly – are rising seas that threaten our coast, while disappearing snowpack in the Sierra Nevada presents new challenges for our state’s water management. In the near term, we must take practical, affordable steps to maintain our water, power, and transportation infrastructure, and plan for longer term actions as well.
California Water Plan 2013: Sacramento River Hydrologic Region Report$0.00 Bulk Download
California Water Plan 2013: Sacramento River Hydrologic Region ReportCalifornia Department of Water Resources (DWR) | October 30, 2014...Summary
The Sacramento River Hydrologic Region (see Figure SR-1 includes the entire California drainage area of the Sacramento River (the state’s largest river) and...
The Sacramento River Hydrologic Region (see Figure SR-1 includes the entire California drainage area of the Sacramento River (the state’s largest river) and its tributaries. The region extends from Chipps Island in Solano County north to Goose Lake in Modoc County. It is bounded by the Sierra Nevada on the east, the Coast Ranges on the west, the Cascade and Trinity mountains on the north, and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) on the south. The Sacramento River Basin actually begins in Oregon, north of Goose Lake, a near-sink that intercepts the Pit River drainage at the California-Oregon border.
Some key issues for this region are summarized here and discussed further later in this report.
Agriculture. Between 2005 and 2010, the region supported about 1.95 million acres of irrigated agriculture on average. Approximately 1.58 million acres is irrigated on the valley floor. The surrounding mountain valleys add about 370,000 irrigated acres to the region’s total — primarily as pasture and alfalfa. The gross value of agricultural production in the Sacramento Valley for 2011 was about $4.1 billion (California Department of Food and Agriculture 2013). Rice and walnuts are the highest grossing crops in the region followed by almonds and tomatoes. The direct, indirect, and induced effects of the agricultural industry to the regional economy are discussed in this report.
Groundwater. With a 2005-2010 average annual extraction volume of 2.7 million acre-feet (maf), groundwater pumping in the Sacramento River Hydrologic Region accounts for 17 percent of all the groundwater extraction in California — the third highest among the 10 hydrologic regions in California, behind Tulare Lake Hydrologic Region with 38 percent and San Joaquin River Hydrologic Region with 19 percent of the total. Overall, groundwater contributes to about 31 percent of the total water supply. Most groundwater extraction in the region occurs for agricultural water use (2.4 maf), meeting about one-third of agricultural water demands. Groundwater extraction for urban water use is significantly less (465 thousand acre-feet [taf]), which meets about half of the urban water needs. Groundwater levels for much of the region have declined from 2005 to 2010. Groundwater level declines ranging from 20 to 30 feet are seen in the northwestern portion of the Sacramento Valley Groundwater Basin. Declines ranging from to 10 to 20 feet are seen in the northern, the mid- to south-western, and the southeastern portions of the valley. For the rest of the Sacramento Valley Groundwater Basin and the Redding Area Groundwater Basin, groundwater level declines have
ranged from zero to 10 feet.
Flood. Exposure to a 500-year flood event in the region threatens approximately one in three residents, almost $65 billion in assets (crops, buildings, and public infrastructure), 1.2 million acres of agricultural land, and over 340 sensitive species. Almost 95 percent of Sutter County residents, more than 55 percent of Yuba County and Yolo County residents, and more than 50 percent of agricultural land region-wide are exposed to the 500-year flood event.
Climate Change. Several different climate regions overlie portions of the Sacramento River Hydrologic Region. Air temperature data collected for the past century has been summarized by the Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC) for the different regions which are outlined below.
- Within the WRCC North Central climate region, mean temperatures have increased by about 0.8 to 1.7 °F (0.4 to 0.9 °C) in the past century, with minimum and maximum temperatures increasing by about 1.2 to 2.1 °F (0.7 to 1.2 °C) and 0.1 to 1.5 °F (0.1 to 0.8 °C), respectively.
- Within the WRCC North East climate region, mean temperatures have increased by about 0.8 to 2.0 °F (0.5 to 1.1 °C) in the past century, with minimum and maximum temperatures increasing by about 0.9 to 2.2 °F (0.5 to 1.2 °C) and by 0.5 to 2.1 °F (0.3 to 1.2 °C), respectively.
- Within the WRCC Sierra climate region, mean temperatures have increased by about 0.8 to 2.0 °F (0.5 to 1.1 °C) in the past century, with minimum and maximum temperatures increasing and decreasing by about 1.7 to 2.8 °F (0.9 to 1.5 °C) and by -0.2 to 1.3 °F (-0.1 to 0.7 °C), respectively.
- Within the WRCC Sacramento-Delta climate region, mean temperatures have increased by about 1.5 to 2.4 °F (0.9 to 1.3 °C) in the past century, with minimum and maximum temperatures increasing by about 2.1 to 3.1 °F (1.2 to 1.7 °C) and by 0.8 to 2.0 °F (0.4 to 1.1 °C), respectively (Western
Regional Climate Center 2013).
The region also is currently experiencing impacts from climate change through changes in statewide precipitation and surface runoff volumes, which in turn affect availability of local and imported water supplies. During the last century, the average early snowpack in the Sierra Nevada decreased by about 10 percent, which equates to a loss of 1.5 maf of snowpack storage (California Department of Water Resources 2008). Projections and impacts based on modeling of climate change are included in this report.
Rising seas in California: An update on sea-level rise science$0.00 Bulk Download
Rising seas in California: An update on sea-level rise scienceCalifornia Ocean Protection Council | April 22, 2017...Summary
Key findings of this report: Scientific understanding of sea-level rise is advancing at a rapid pace. Projections of future sea-level rise, especially under...
Key findings of this report:
Scientific understanding of sea-level rise is advancing at a rapid pace. Projections of future sea-level rise, especially under high emissions scenarios, have increased substantially over the last few years, primarily due to new and improved understanding of mass loss from continental ice sheets. These sea-level rise projections will continue to change as scientific understanding increases and as the impacts of local, state, national and global policy choices become manifest. New processes that allow for rapid incorporation of new scientific data and results into policy will enable state and local agencies to proactively prepare.
The direction of sea level change is clear. Coastal California is already experiencing the early impacts of a rising sea level, including more extensive coastal flooding during storms, periodic tidal flooding, and increased coastal erosion.
The rate of ice loss from the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets is increasing. These ice sheets will soon become the primary contributor to global sea-level rise, overtaking the contributions from ocean thermal expansion and melting mountain glaciers and ice caps. Ice loss from Antarctica, and especially from West Antarctica, causes higher sea-level rise in California than the global average: for example, if the loss of West Antarctic ice were to cause global sea-level to rise by 1 foot, the associated sea-level rise in California would be about 1.25 feet.
New scientific evidence has highlighted the potential for extreme sea-level rise. If greenhouse gas emissions continue unabated, key glaciological processes could cross thresholds that lead to rapidly accelerating and effectively irreversible ice loss. Aggressive reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may substantially reduce but do not eliminate the risk to California of extreme sea-level rise from Antarctic ice loss. Moreover, current observations of Antarctic melt rates cannot rule out the potential for extreme sea-level rise in the future, because the processes that could drive extreme Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat later in the century are different from the processes driving loss now.
Probabilities of specific sea-level increases can inform decisions. A probabilistic approach to sea-level rise projections, combined with a clear articulation of the implications of uncertainty and the decision support needs of affected stakeholders, is the most appropriate approach for use in a policy setting. This report employs the framework of Kopp et al. (2014) to project sea-level rise for three representative tide gauge locations along the Pacific coastline: Crescent City in northern California, San Francisco in the Bay area, and La Jolla in southern California. These projections may underestimate the likelihood of extreme sea-level rise, particularly under high emissions scenarios, so this report also includes an extreme scenario called the H++ scenario. The probability of this scenario is currently unknown, but its consideration is important, particularly for high-stakes, long-term decisions.
Current policy decisions are shaping our coastal future. Before 2050, differences in sea-level rise projections under different emissions scenarios are minor but they diverge significantly past midcentury. After 2050, sea-level rise projections increasingly depend on the trajectory of greenhouse gas emissions. For example, under the extreme H++ scenario rapid ice sheet loss on Antarctica could drive rates of sea-level rise in California above 50 mm/year (2 inches/year) by the end of the century, leading to potential sea-level rise exceeding 10 feet. This rate of sea-level rise would be about 30-40 times faster than the sea-level rise experienced over the last century.
Waiting for scientific certainty is neither a safe nor prudent option. High confidence in projections of sea-level rise over the next three decades can inform preparedness efforts, adaptation actions and hazard mitigation undertaken today, and prevent much greater losses than will occur if action is not taken. Consideration of high and even extreme sea levels in decisions with implications past 2050 is needed to safeguard the people and resources of coastal California.
Climate modeling 101: Explanations without equations$0.00 Bulk Download
Climate modeling 101: Explanations without equationsSpringer Open | January 1, 2016...Summary
Climate scientists tell us it's going to get hotter. How much it rains and where it rains is likely to shift. Sea level...
Climate scientists tell us it's going to get hotter. How much it rains and where it rains is likely to shift. Sea level rise is apt to accelerate. Oceans are on their way to becoming more acidic and less oxygenated. Floods, droughts, storms, and other extreme weather events are projected to change in frequency or intensity.
But how do they know what they know?
For climate scientists, numerical models are the tools of the trade. But for the layperson — and even for scientists in other fields — climate models can seem mysterious. What does "numerical" even mean? Do climate models take other things besides the atmosphere into account? How do scientists know if a model is any good? *
Two experts in climate modeling, Andrew Gettelman of the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Richard Rood of the University of Michigan, have your answers and more, free of charge. In a new open-access book, "Demystifying Climate Models," the pair lay out the fundamentals. In 282 pages, the scientists explain the basics of climate science, how that science is translated into a climate model, and what those models can tell us (as well as what they can't) — all without using a single equation.
*Find the answers on pages 8, 13, and 161, respectively, of the book.